Analytic / synthetic (1783)

Distinction first formulated by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), adopted as a fundamental principle in linguistic semantics.

An analytic or necessary truth (‘sentence’ in linguistics) is true by virtue of its meaning: ‘All bachelors are unmarried men’.

A synthetic or contingent truth is true by virtue of empirical fact: ‘Grass is green’ is not necessarily true, but only if grass is green.

T M Olshewsky, ed., Problems in the Philosophy of Language (New York, 1969), ch. 5

Natural sciences


  • Analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to learn their chemical composition and structure
  • Analytical technique, a method that is used to determine the concentration of a chemical compound or chemical element
  • Analytical concentration


  • Abstract analytic number theory, the application of ideas and techniques from analytic number theory to other mathematical fields
  • Analytic capacity, a number that denotes how big a certain bounded analytic function can become
  • Analytic combinatorics, a branch of combinatorics that describes combinatorial classes using generating functions
  • Analytic continuation, a technique to extend the domain of definition of a given analytic function
  • Analytic expression, a mathematical expression using well-known operations that lend themselves readily to calculation
  • Analytic function, a function that is locally given by a convergent power series
  • Analytic geometry, the study of geometry using the principles of algebra
  • Analytic number theory, a branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis
  • Analytic solution: a solution to a problem that can be written in “closed form” in terms of known functions, constants, etc.
  • Analytic variety, the set of common solutions of several equations involving analytic functions

Set theory[edit]

  • Analytical hierarchy, an extension of the arithmetical hierarchy
  • Analytic set, if it is a continuous image of a Polish space. These sets were first defined by Luzin (1917) and his student Souslin (1917)
  • Lightface analytic game, a game whose payoff set A is a subset of Baire space; that is, there is a tree T on which is a computable subset of, such that A is the projection of the set of all branches of T

Proof theory[edit]

  • Analytic proof, in structural proof theory, a proof whose structure is simple in a special way
  • Method of analytic tableaux, a fundamental concept in automated theorem proving

Miscellaneous mathematical disciplines[edit]

  • Analytic element method, a numerical method used to solve partial differential equations
  • Analytic manifold, a topological manifold with analytic transition maps

Computer science

  • Analytic or reductive grammar, a kind of formal grammar that works by successively reducing input strings to simpler forms
  • Analytics, to find meaningful patterns in data
  • Online analytical processing, interactive version of above

Miscellaneous natural scientific disciplines

  • Analytic signal, a particular representation of a signal
  • Analytical mechanics, a refined, highly mathematical form of classical mechanics
  • Analytical balance, a very high precision (0.1 mg or better) weighing scale


  • Analytic philosophy, a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century
  • Analytic proposition, a statement whose truth can be determined solely through analysis of its meaning
  • Analytical Thomism, the movement to present the thought of Thomas Aquinas in the style of modern analytic philosophy
  • Postanalytic philosophy, describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries

Social sciences


  • Analytical psychology, part of the Jungian psychology movement
  • Cognitive analytic therapy, a form of psychological therapy initially developed in the United Kingdom by Anthony Ryle
  • Psychoanalysis, a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques


  • Analytic induction, the systematic examination of similarities between various social phenomena to develop concepts or ideas
  • Analytic frame, a detailed sketch or outline of some social phenomenon, representing initial idea of a scientist analyzing this phenomenon


  • Analytical Marxism, an interpretation of Marxism


  • Analytic language, a natural language in which most morphemes are free (separate), instead of fused together

2 thoughts on “Analytic / synthetic (1783)

  1. Emma Savinon says:

    Hmm is anyone else having problems with the pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to figure out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any responses would be greatly appreciated.

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