List of Philosophical Theories and Concepts

A philosophical theory or philosophical position is a view that attempts to explain or account for a particular problem in philosophy. The use of the term “theory” is a statement of colloquial English and not reflective of the term theory. While any sort of thesis or opinion may be termed a position, in analytic philosophy it is thought best to reserve the word “theory” for systematic, comprehensive attempts to solve problems.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0-9 & other

A

abandonment

absence paradox

absolute

absolutism

abstractionism

act utilitarianism

activism

agnosticism

altruism

analytic/synthetic

animism

anomalous monism

anthropomorphism

anthroposophy

anti-nomianism

anti-realism

apriorism

Aristotelianism

Aristotle’s four causes

associationism

atheism

atomic uniformity, principle of

atomism

attitude theories

B

Bayesianism

behaviorism

bivalence, law or principle of

Boo Hurrah theory

British empiricists

bundle theories

Buridan’s ass

C

categorical imperative

category mistake

causal principle

causal realism

causal theories

causal theories of meaning

causal theories of perception

causal theories of reference

causal theory of knowledge

causal theory of memory

causal theory of names

chain of being

charity, principle of

classical theory of probability

coherence theory of truth

compatibilism

computational psychology

conceptualism

confirmation principle

Confucianism

connectionism

connexive implication

consequentialism

consistent empiricism

constructivism

contextualism

continental rationalists

continuity, law or principle of

contractualism

contradiction, law of

convention t

conventionalism

correspondence or relational theories of meaning

correspondence theory of truth

counterpart theory

covering law model

Craig’s theorem

creative evolution

critical realism

cynicism

D

de facto and de jure theories of meaning

deduction theorem

deductivism

degrees of truth

deism

denotation and connotation

deontology

descriptions, theory of

descriptive theory of names

descriptivism

determinism

dialectic

dialetheism

double aspect theory of mind

double effect doctrine

double negation principle

dualism

E

eclecticism and syncretism

effluxes, theory of

egocentric predicament

egoism

Eleaticism

emergence theories

emotive theory of truth

emotivism

empiricism

empiriocriticism

Epicureanism

epiphenomenalism

epistemic closure, principle of

essentialism

excluded middle, law of

existentialism

extensionality thesis

externalism

F

fact/value distinction

fallibilism

falsificationism

fatalism

fideism

‘Fido’-Fido theories

finalism

finitism

five ways

folk psychology

formalism

foundationalism

four humors

frequency theory of probability

functionalism

G

golden rule

Goodman’s paradox

greatest happiness principle

H

haecceitism

hedonism

hedonistic utilitarianism

Hempel’s paradox

hermeneutics

historicism

holism

holistic explanation

human nature

humanity, principle of

Hume’s law

hylomorphism

hylozoism

hypothetico-deductive method

I

ideal utilitarianism

idealism

ideational theories of meaning

identity, law of

identity of indiscernibles

identity theory of mind

identity theory of predication

identity theory of truth

ideology

immaterialism

impossibility of a gambling system, principle of the

improbabilism

indeterminacy of reference and translation

indeterminism

indifference, principle of

indiscernibility of identicals

individuation principle

induction

inductivism

infinite divisibility

innate ideas

inscriptionism

instrumentalism

interactionism

internal relations, doctrine of

internalism

intuitionism

isolationism

J

Jourdain’s paradox

justice

K

L

language of thought

lawyer paradox

legal positivism

legitimacy

Leibniz’s law

libertarianism

limited independent variety, principle of

linguistic phenomenology

linguistic philosophy

local sign theory

logical atomism

logical empiricism

logical positivism

logical relation theory of probability

logicism

M

Manicheism

materialism

mean, doctrine of the

meaning, theories of

mechanism

Meinong’s jungle

meliorism

mereology

metalanguage

methodological theories

modal realism

monism

moral sense theories

mysticism

N

naive realism

naming theories of meaning

nativism

naturalism

naturalized epistemology

necessitarianism

negation, performative theory of

negative utilitarianism

neo-Platonism

neo-Pythagoreanism

neutral monism

new riddle of induction

Nicod’s criterion

nihilism

no-ownership theory of the mind

nominalism

non-cognitivism

O

objective idealism

objectivism

objectivism (2)

occasionalism

Ockham’s Razor

one over many principle

ontology

operationalism

organic unities, principle of

organicism

origins of life

Orphism

P

panpsychism

pantheism

paraconsistency

paradigmatism

parsimony, principle of

particularism

Pascal’s wager

perfection, principle of

performative, theory of truth

personalism

perspective realism

perspectivism

phenomenalism

phenomenology

physicalism

picture theory of meaning

Plato’s theory of forms

Platonism

plenitude, principle of

plurality of causes

positivism

pragmatic theory of truth

pragmatism

pre-established harmony, doctrine of

preference utilitarianism

prescriptivism

private language argument

probabilism

process philosophy

propensity theory of probability

psychologism

psychophysical parallelism

Pyrrhonism

Pythagoreanism

Q

R

radical empiricism

radical interpretation

range theories of probability

rationalism

real self

realism

reducibility, axiom of

reductionism (1)

reductionism (2)

redundancy theory of truth

regularity theory of causation

relativism

relevance logics

relevant alternatives, theory of

reliabilism

representationalism

resemblance theories of universals

retributivism

rule utilitarianism

S

semantic atomism

semantics

semantics, truth-conditional

sensationalism

sense and reference

situationism

skepticism

solipsism

speciation, theory of

species essentialism

species, theory of

speciesism

specious present

speech act theory

stimulus-response model

Stoicism

subjective idealism

subjectivism

subjectivist theories of probability

sufficient reason, principle of

T

tacit knowledge

teleology

theism

third man argument

three laws of thought

trace theory of memory

transcendental idealism

trialism

Tristram Shandy paradox

tropisms, theory of

truth theory

truth-conditional semantics

types, ramified theory of

types, simple theory of

U

uniformity of nature, principle of the

universalism

universalizability

use theories of meaning

utilitarianism

utilitarianism, Bentham’s theory of

utopianism

V

verifiability principle

vicious circle principle

Vienna Circle

vitalism

voluntarism

W

X

Y

Z

0-9 & other

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