Cardinal John Henry Newman


– All things human develop and change in time, including the Church institution and doctrine.

– It is a collective responsibility to see that ideas develop rightly and in a continuous fashion.

– A university is a place of teaching universal knowledge to produce intelligent members of society by fostering cultivation of the mind and formation of the intellect.

– Religion and knowledge are not opposed to each other, not because they are irrelevant to one another but because they are indivisibly connected – religion forms part of the subject matter of knowledge.

– Certitude is ‘an assent, deliberate, unconditional and conscious, to a proposition as true’ – which does not mean we cannot ‘allow in the abstract that it is possible that we are wrong’ but there can be no ‘degree’ of certidute.


Newman was a leading priest in the Church of England whose conversion to Catholicism was a major event of the 1840s.

Newman was a popular speaker and a scholar at Oxford, making his conversion all the more welcome to Catholics and shocking to Anglicans.

Newman had been ordained as an Anglican priest in 1825; he was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1847, and in 1879 he was created a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII.

His Apologia Pro Vita Sua (1864) is considered a classic among religious autobiographies.

Major Works of John Henry Newman

– Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine (1845)
– Idea of a University (1858)
– Apologia Pro Vita Sua (1864)
– Essay in Aid of a Grammer of Assent (1870)

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