Nature and scope of science
Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural
Social Science: meaning, nature and scope
Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of human societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original “science of society”, established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, media studies, musicology, political science, psychology, and social history.
What is a Scientific Theory?
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocols of observation, measurement, and evaluation of results. Where possible, theories are tested under controlled conditions in an experiment. In circumstances not amenable to experimental testing, theories are evaluated through principles of abductive reasoning. Established scientific theories have withstood rigorous scrutiny and embody
The becoming and evolution of a scientific theory
The process of becoming a scientific theory The scientific method involves the proposal and testing of hypotheses, by deriving predictions from the hypotheses about the results of future experiments, then performing those experiments to see whether the predictions are valid. This provides evidence either for or against the hypothesis. When enough experimental results have been gathered in a particular
Long-Term Contracts and the Economics of Information
It is essential to recognize the possibility that some economies of integration could be gained by the right type of long-term or even short-term contract between independent firms. For example, proc-ess savings could conceivably be gained by locating the plants of two independent entities right next to each other. Metal container plants are sometimes
The organizational failures framework: Summary Remarks
At the risk of oversimplification, the argument of the preceding sections of this chapter can be summarized by the schematic in Figure 3. The main pairings are shown by the heavy double-headed arrows which associate bounded rationality with uncertainty/complexity on the one hand and op- portunism with a small-numbers exchange relations on the other.