Nature and scope of science

What is science?

Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”)[1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[2][3][4]

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE.[5][6] Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes.[5][6] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages[7] but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.[8] The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived “natural philosophy”,[7][9] which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century[10] as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.[11][12][13][14] The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape;[15][16][17] along with the changing of “natural philosophy” to “natural science.”[18]

Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement,[19][20] however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence.[21] Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.[22][23][24][25]

Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.

Branches of science

Modern science is commonly divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, social sciences, and formal sciences. Each of these branches comprise various specialized yet overlapping scientific disciplines that often possess their own nomenclature and expertise.[90] Both natural and social sciences are empirical sciences[91] as their knowledge is based on empirical observations and is capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.[92]

There are also closely related disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, which are sometimes described as applied sciences. The relationships between the branches of science are summarized by the following table.

Science
Formal science Empirical sciences
Natural science Social science
Foundation Logic; Mathematics; Statistics Physics; Chemistry; Biology;
Earth science; Space science
Economics; Political science;
Sociology; Psychology
Application Computer science Engineering; Agricultural science;
Medicine; Dentistry; Pharmacy
Business administration;
Jurisprudence; Pedagogy

Natural science

The scale of the Universe mapped to branches of science and showing how one system is built atop the next through the hierarchy of the sciences.

Natural science is concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. It can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science. These two branches may be further divided into more specialized disciplines. Modern natural science is the successor to the natural philosophy that began in Ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and presuppositions, often overlooked, remain necessary in natural science.[93] Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on.[94] Today, “natural history” suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences.[95]

Social science

Social science is concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. Social scientists may adopt various philosophical theories to study individuals and society. For example, positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research). The term “social research” has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.

Formal science

Formal science is involved in the study of formal systems. It includes mathematics,[96][97] systems theory, and theoretical computer science. The formal sciences share similarities with the other two branches by relying on objective, careful, and systematic study of an area of knowledge. They are, however, different from the empirical sciences as they rely exclusively on deductive reasoning, without the need for empirical evidence, to verify their abstract concepts.[21][98][92] The formal sciences are therefore a priori disciplines and because of this, there is disagreement on whether they actually constitute a science.[19][20] Nevertheless, the formal sciences play an important role in the empirical sciences. Calculus, for example, was initially invented to understand motion in physics.[99] Natural and social sciences that rely heavily on mathematical applications include mathematical physics, mathematical chemistry, mathematical biology, mathematical finance, and mathematical economics.

References

  1. Harper, Douglas. “science”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  2. Wilson, E.O. (1999). “The natural sciences”. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (Reprint ed.). New York, New York: Vintage. pp. 49–71. ISBN978-0-679-76867-8.
  3. “… modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions.”— p.vii Heilbron, J.L. (editor-in-chief)(2003). “Preface”. The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. vii–X. ISBN 978-0-19-511229-0.
  4. “science”. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 3 a:knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b: such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena.
  5. “The historian … requires a very broad definition of “science” – one that … will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive … and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be.”  p.3—Lindberg, David C. (2007). “Science before the Greeks”. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context(Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–27. ISBN978-0-226-48205-7.
  6. Grant, Edward (2007). “Ancient Egypt to Plato”. A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN978-052-1-68957-1.
  7. Lindberg, David C. (2007). “The revival of learning in the West”. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–224. ISBN978-0-226-48205-7.
  8. Lindberg, David C. (2007). “Islamic science”. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 163–92. ISBN978-0-226-48205-7.
  9. Lindberg, David C. (2007). “The recovery and assimilation of Greek and Islamic science”. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 225–53. ISBN978-0-226-48205-7.
  10. Principe, Lawrence M. (2011). “Introduction”. Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction (First ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN978-0-199-56741-6.
  11. Lindberg, David C. (1990). “Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch”. In David C. Lindberg; Robert S. Westman (eds.). Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (First ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN978-0-521-34262-9.
  12. Lindberg, David C. (2007). “The legacy of ancient and medieval science”. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 357–368. ISBN978-0-226-48205-7.
  13. Del Soldato, Eva (2016). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Fall 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  14. Grant, Edward (2007). “Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century”. A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–322. ISBN978-052-1-68957-1.
  15. Cahan, David, ed. (2003). From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN978-0-226-08928-7.
  16. The Oxford English Dictionarydates the origin of the word “scientist” to 1834.
  17. Lightman, Bernard (2011). “13. Science and the Public”. In Shank, Michael; Numbers, Ronald; Harrison, Peter (eds.). Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 367. ISBN978-0226317830.
  18. Harrison, Peter(2015). The Territories of Science and Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9780226184517. The changing character of those engaged in scientific endeavors was matched by a new nomenclature for their endeavors. The most conspicuous marker of this change was the replacement of “natural philosophy” by “natural science”. In 1800 few had spoken of the “natural sciences” but by 1880, this expression had overtaken the traditional label “natural philosophy”. The persistence of “natural philosophy” in the twentieth century is owing largely to historical references to a past practice (see figure 11). As should now be apparent, this was not simply the substitution of one term by another, but involved the jettisoning of a range of personal qualities relating to the conduct of philosophy and the living of the philosophical life.
  19. Bishop, Alan (1991). “Environmental activities and mathematical culture”. Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 20–59. ISBN978-0-792-31270-3.
  20. Bunge, Mario (1998). “The Scientific Approach”. Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory. 1(revised ed.). New York, New York: Routledge. pp. 3–50. ISBN978-0-765-80413-6.
  21. Fetzer, James H. (2013). “Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems”. Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines (1st ed.). Newcastle, United Kingdom: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 271–308. ISBN978-1-443-81946-6.
  22. Fischer, M.R.; Fabry, G (2014). “Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education”. GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 31(2): Doc24. doi:3205/zma000916. PMC 4027809. PMID 24872859.
  23. Abraham, Reem Rachel (2004). “Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students”. Advances in Physiology Education. 28(3): 102–04. doi:1152/advan.00001.2004. PMID 15319191.
  24. Sinclair, Marius. “On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods”. The International Journal of Engineering Education.
  25. “Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI”. www.engr.iupui.edu. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  26. Grant, Edward (January 1, 1997). “History of Science: When Did Modern Science Begin?”. The American Scholar. 66(1): 105–113. JSTOR 41212592.
  27. Pingree, David(December 1992). “Hellenophilia versus the History of Science”. Isis. 83 (4): 554–63. Bibcode:..83..554P. doi:10.1086/356288. JSTOR 234257.
  28. Sima Qian(司馬遷, d. 86 BCE) in his Records of the Grand Historian (太史公書) covering some 2500 years of Chinese history, records Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖, fl. c. 630–595 BCE – Zhou dynasty), the first known hydraulic engineer of China, cited in (Joseph Needham et al. (1971) Science and Civilisation in China 3 p. 271) as having built a reservoir which has lasted to this day.
  29. Rochberg, Francesca (2011). “Ch.1 Natural Knowledge in Ancient Mesopotamia”. In Shank, Michael; Numbers, Ronald; Harrison, Peter (eds.). Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 9. ISBN978-0226317830.
  30. McIntosh, Jane R. (2005). Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, and Oxford, England: ABC-CLIO. pp. 273–76. ISBN978-1-57607-966-9.
  31. Aaboe (May 2, 1974). “Scientific Astronomy in Antiquity”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 276(1257): 21–42. Bibcode:1974RSPTA.276…21A. doi:10.1098/rsta.1974.0007. JSTOR 74272.
  32. R D. Biggs (2005). “Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health in Ancient Mesopotamia”. Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. 19(1): 7–18.
  33. Lehoux, Daryn (2011). “2. Natural Knowledge in the Classical World”. In Shank, Michael; Numbers, Ronald; Harrison, Peter (eds.). Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 39. ISBN978-0226317830.
  34. See the quotation in Homer(8th century BCE) Odyssey302–03
  35. “Progress or Return” in An Introduction to Political Philosophy: Ten Essays by Leo Strauss(Expanded version of Political Philosophy: Six Essays by Leo Strauss, 1975.) Ed. Hilail Gilden. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1989.
  36. Cropsey; Strauss (eds.). History of Political Philosophy (3rd ed.). p. 209.
  37. O’Grady, Patricia F. (2016). Thales of Miletus: The Beginnings of Western Science and Philosophy. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. p. 245. ISBN978-0-7546-0533-1.
  38. Burkert, Walter(June 1, 1972). Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-53918-1. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018.
  39. Pullman, Bernard (1998). The Atom in the History of Human Thought. pp. 31–33. Bibcode:book…..P. ISBN978-0-19-515040-7.
  40. Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire, eds. (2017). Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science(Second ed.). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier. p. 427. ISBN 978-0-08-101107-2.
  41. Margotta, Roberto (1968). vFZrAAAAMAAJ The Story of MedicineCheck |url= value (help). New York City, New York: Golden Press.
  42. Touwaide, Alain (2005). Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven; Wallis, Faith (eds.). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. p. 224. ISBN978-0-415-96930-7.
  43. Leff, Samuel; Leff, Vera (1956). From Witchcraft to World Health. London, England: Macmillan.
  44. Mitchell, Jacqueline S. (February 18, 2003). “The Origins of Science”. Scientific American Frontiers. PBS. Archived from the originalon March 3, 2003. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  45. “Plato, Apology”. p. 17. Archivedfrom the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  46. “Plato, Apology”. p. 27. Archivedfrom the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  47. “Plato, Apology, section 30”. Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University. 1966. Archivedfrom the original on January 27, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
  48. Nicomachean Ethics (H. Rackham ed.). Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 1139b
  49. McClellan III, James E.; Dorn, Harold (2015). Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN978-1-4214-1776-9.
  50. Edwards, C.H. Jr. (1979). The Historical Development of the Calculus(First ed.). New York City, New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-387-94313-8.
  51. Lawson, Russell M. (2004). Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 190–91. ISBN978-1-85109-539-1.
  52. Murphy, Trevor Morgan (2004). Pliny the Elder’s Natural History: The Empire in the Encyclopedia. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN9780199262885.
  53. Doode, Aude (2010). Pliny’s Encyclopedia: The Reception of the Natural History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN9781139484534.
  54. Smith, A. Mark (June 2004), “What is the History of Medieval Optics Really About?”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 148(2): 180–94, JSTOR 1558283, PMID 15338543
  55. Lindberg, David C. (2007). “Roman and early medieval science”. The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 132–162. ISBN978-0-226-48205-7.
  56. Wildberg, Christian (May 1, 2018). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  57. Aristotle, PhysicsII, 3, and Metaphysics V, 2
  58. Grant, Edward (1996). The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge Studies in the History of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–17. ISBN978-0521567626.
  59. Grant, Edward (2007). “Islam and the eastward shift of Aristotelian natural philosophy”. A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 62–67. ISBN978-0-521-68957-1.
  60. The Cambridge history of Iran. Fisher, W.B. (William Bayne). Cambridge: University Press. 1968–1991. ISBN978-0521200936. OCLC 745412.
  61. “Bayt al-Hikmah”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archivedfrom the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  62. Klein-Frank, F. Al-Kindi. In Leaman, O & Nasr, H (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge. p. 165. Felix Klein-Frank (2001) Al-Kindi, pp. 166–67. In Oliver Leaman & Hossein Nasr. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge.
  63. “Science in Islam”. Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 2009.
  64. Toomer, G.J. (1964). “Reviewed work: Ibn al-Haythams Weg zur Physik, Matthias Schramm”. Isis. 55(4): 463–65. doi:1086/349914. JSTOR 228328. See p. 464: “Schramm sums up [Ibn Al-Haytham’s] achievement in the development of scientific method.”, p. 465: “Schramm has demonstrated .. beyond any dispute that Ibn al-Haytham is a major figure in the Islamic scientific tradition, particularly in the creation of experimental techniques.” p. 465: “only when the influence of ibn al-Haytam and others on the mainstream of later medieval physical writings has been seriously investigated can Schramm’s claim that ibn al-Haytam was the true founder of modern physics be evaluated.”
  65. Smith 2001:Book I, [6.54]. p. 372
  66. Selin, H (2006). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. pp. 155–156. Bibcode:book…..S. ISBN978-1-4020-4559-2.
  67. Numbers, Ronald (2009). 9780674057418 Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and ReligionCheck |url= value (help). Harvard University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-674-03327-6.
  68. Shwayder, Maya (April 7, 2011). “Debunking a myth”. The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
  69. Smith 2001
  70. McGinnis, Jon (2010). The Canon of Medicine. Oxford University. p. 227.
  71. Lindberg, David (1992). The Beginnings of Western Science. University of Chicago Press. p. 162. ISBN9780226482040.
  72. “St. Albertus Magnus | German theologian, scientist, and philosopher”. Archivedfrom the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  73. Smith, A. Mark (2001). “Alhacen’s Theory of Visual Perception: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary, of the First Three Books of Alhacen’s “De aspectibus”, the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn al-Haytham’s “Kitāb al-Manāẓir”: Volume One”. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 91(4): i–337. JSTOR 3657358.
  74. Smith, A. Mark (1981). “Getting the Big Picture in Perspectivist Optics”. Isis. 72(4): 568–89. doi:1086/352843. JSTOR 231249. PMID 7040292.
  75. Goldstein, Bernard R (2016). “Copernicus and the Origin of his Heliocentric System”. Journal for the History of Astronomy. 33(3): 219–35. doi:1177/002182860203300301.
  76. Cohen, H. Floris(2010). How modern science came into the world. Four civilizations, one 17th-century breakthrough(Second ed.). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789089642394.
  77. “Galileo and the Birth of Modern Science”. American Heritage of Invention and Technology. 24.
  78. van Helden, Al (1995). “Pope Urban VIII”. The Galileo Project. Archivedfrom the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  79. MacTutor Archive, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
  80. Freudenthal, Gideon; McLaughlin, Peter (May 20, 2009). The Social and Economic Roots of the Scientific Revolution: Texts by Boris Hessen and Henryk Grossmann. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN9781402096044.
  81. Thomas G. Bergin (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Renaissance(Oxford and New York: New Market Books, 1987).
  82. see Hall (1954), iii; Mason (1956), 223.
  83. Cassels, Alan. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. p. 2.
  84. Ross, Sydney (1962). “Scientist: The story of a word”(PDF). Annals of Science. 18(2): 65–85. doi:1080/00033796200202722. Retrieved March 8, 2011.To be exact, the person who coined the term scientist was referred to in Whewell 1834 only as “some ingenious gentleman.” Ross added a comment that this “some ingenious gentleman” was Whewell himself, without giving the reason for the identification. Ross 1962, p. 72.
  85. von Bertalanffy, Ludwig (1972). “The History and Status of General Systems Theory”. The Academy of Management Journal. 15(4): 407–26. doi:2307/255139. JSTOR 255139.
  86. Naidoo, Nasheen; Pawitan, Yudi; Soong, Richie; Cooper, David N.; Ku, Chee-Seng (October 2011). “Human genetics and genomics a decade after the release of the draft sequence of the human genome”. Human Genomics. 5(6): 577–622. doi:1186/1479-7364-5-6-577. PMC 3525251. PMID 22155605.
  87. Rashid, S. Tamir; Alexander, Graeme J.M. (March 2013). “Induced pluripotent stem cells: from Nobel Prizes to clinical applications”. Journal of Hepatology. 58(3): 625–629. doi:1016/j.jhep.2012.10.026. ISSN 1600-0641. PMID 23131523.
  88. Abbott, B.P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.X.; Adya, V.B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P.A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S.B.; Anderson, W.G.; Angelova, S.V.; et al. (2017). “Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger”. The Astrophysical Journal. 848(2): L12. arXiv:05833. Bibcode:2017ApJ…848L..12A. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9.
  89. Cho, Adrian (2017). “Merging neutron stars generate gravitational waves and a celestial light show”. Science. doi:1126/science.aar2149.
  90. “Scientific Method: Relationships Among Scientific Paradigms”. Seed Magazine. March 7, 2007. Archived from the originalon November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 4,2016.
  91. Bunge, Mario Augusto (1998). Philosophy of Science: From Problem to Theory. Transaction Publishers. p. 24. ISBN978-0-7658-0413-6.
  92. Popper, Karl R. (2002a) [1959]. “A survey of some fundamental problems”. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York, New York: Routledge Classics. pp. 3–26. ISBN978-0-415-27844-7. OCLC 59377149.
  93. Gauch Jr., Hugh G. (2003). “Science in perspective”. Scientific Method in Practice. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 21–73. ISBN978-0-52-101708-4.
  94. Oglivie, Brian W. (2008). “Introduction”. The Science of Describing: Natural History in Renaissance Europe(Paperback ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–24. ISBN978-0-226-62088-6.
  95. “Natural History”. Princeton University WordNet. Archivedfrom the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  96. Tomalin, Marcus (2006). Linguistics and the Formal Sciences. doi:2277/0521854814.
  97. Löwe, Benedikt (2002). “The Formal Sciences: Their Scope, Their Foundations, and Their Unity”. Synthese. 133: 5–11. doi:1023/a:1020887832028.
  98. Bill, Thompson (2007), “2.4 Formal Science and Applied Mathematics”, The Nature of Statistical Evidence, Lecture Notes in Statistics, 189(1st ed.), Springer, p. 15
  99. Mujumdar, Anshu Gupta; Singh, Tejinder (2016). “Cognitive science and the connection between physics and mathematics”. In Anthony Aguirre; Brendan Foster (eds.). Trick or Truth?: The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics. The Frontiers Collection (1st ed.). Switzerland: SpringerNature. pp. 201–218. ISBN978-3-319-27494-2.
  100. Richard Dawkins (May 10, 2006). “To Live at All Is Miracle Enough”. RichardDawkins.net. Archived from the originalon January 19, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
  101. Stanovich, Keith E. (2007). How to Think Straight About Psychology. Boston: Pearson Education. pp. 106–147. ISBN978-0-205-68590-5.
  102. “The amazing point is that for the first time since the discovery of mathematics, a method has been introduced, the results of which have an intersubjective value!” (Author’s punctuation)}} —di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo (1976). “The method of physics”. The Investigation of the Physical World. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–52. ISBN978-0-521-29925-1.
  103. Wilson, Edward (1999). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Vintage. ISBN978-0-679-76867-8.
  104. Fara, Patricia (2009). “Decisions”. Science: A Four Thousand Year History. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 408. ISBN978-0-19-922689-4.
  105. Nola, Robert; Irzik, Gürol (2005k). “naive inductivism as a methodology in science”. Philosophy, science, education and culture. Science & technology education library. 28. Springer. pp. 207–230. ISBN978-1-4020-3769-6.
  106. Nola, Robert; Irzik, Gürol (2005j). “The aims of science and critical inquiry”. Philosophy, science, education and culture. Science & technology education library. 28. Springer. pp. 207–230. ISBN978-1-4020-3769-6.
  107. van Gelder, Tim (1999). “”Heads I win, tails you lose”: A Foray Into the Psychology of Philosophy”(PDF). University of Melbourne. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  108. Pease, Craig (September 6, 2006). “Chapter 23. Deliberate bias: Conflict creates bad science”. Science for Business, Law and Journalism. Vermont Law School. Archived from the originalon June 19, 2010.
  109. Shatz, David (2004). Peer Review: A Critical Inquiry. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN978-0-7425-1434-8. OCLC 54989960.
  110. Krimsky, Sheldon (2003). Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted the Virtue of Biomedical Research. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN978-0-7425-1479-9. OCLC 185926306.
  111. Bulger, Ruth Ellen; Heitman, Elizabeth; Reiser, Stanley Joel (2002). The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-00886-0. OCLC 47791316.
  112. Backer, Patricia Ryaby (October 29, 2004). “What is the scientific method?”. San Jose State University. Archived from the originalon April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  113. Ziman, John (1978c). “Common observation”. Reliable knowledge: An exploration of the grounds for belief in science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 42–76. ISBN978-0-521-22087-3.
  114. Ziman, John (1978c). “The stuff of reality”. Reliable knowledge: An exploration of the grounds for belief in science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 95–123. ISBN978-0-521-22087-3.
  115. Popper, Karl R. (2002e) [1959]. “The problem of the empirical basis”. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York, New York: Routledge Classics. pp. 3–26. ISBN978-0-415-27844-7. OCLC 59377149.
  116. “SIAM: Graduate Education for Computational Science and Engineering”. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Archivedfrom the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  117. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003c). “Induction and confirmation”. Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. pp. 39–56. ISBN978-0-226-30062-7.
  118. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003o). “Empiricism, naturalism, and scientific realism?”. Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. pp. 219–232. ISBN978-0-226-30062-7.
  119. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003b). “Logic plus empiricism”. Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. pp. 19–38. ISBN978-0-226-30062-7.
  120. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003d). “Popper: Conjecture and refutation”. Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. pp. 57–74. ISBN978-0-226-30062-7.
  121. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003g). “Lakatos, Laudan, Feyerabend, and frameworks”. Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. pp. 102–121. ISBN978-0-226-30062-7.
  122. Popper, Karl (1972). Objective Knowledge.
  123. “Shut up and multiply”. LessWrong Wiki. September 13, 2015. Archivedfrom the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  124. Newton-Smith, W.H. (1994). The Rationality of Science. London: Routledge. p. 30. ISBN978-0-7100-0913-5.
  125. Bird, Alexander (2013). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). “Thomas Kuhn”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  126. S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd. ed., Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1970, p. 206. ISBN0-226-45804-0
  127. Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003j). “Naturalistic philosophy in theory and practice”. Theory and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. pp. 149–162. ISBN978-0-226-30062-7.
  128. Brugger, E. Christian (2004). “Casebeer, William D. Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectionism, and Moral Cognition”. The Review of Metaphysics. 58(2).
  129. Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt (2015). “The Structure of Scientific Theories”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  130. Popper, Karl Raimund (1996). In Search of a Better World: Lectures and Essays From Thirty Years. New York, New York: Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-13548-1.
  131. Dawkins, Richard; Coyne, Jerry (September 2, 2005). “One side can be wrong”. The Guardian. London. Archivedfrom the original on December 26, 2013.
  132. “Barry Stroud on Scepticism”. philosophy bites. December 16, 2007. Archivedfrom the original on January 23, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
  133. Peirce (1877), “The Fixation of Belief”, Popular Science Monthly, v. 12, pp. 1–15, see §IV on  6–7ArchivedApril 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Reprinted Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 358–87 (see 374–76), Writings v. 3, pp. 242–57 (see 247–48), Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 109–23 (see 114–15), and elsewhere.
  134. Peirce (1905), “Issues of Pragmaticism”, The Monist, v. XV, n. 4, pp. 481–99, see “Character V” on  491. Reprinted in Collected Papersv. 5, paragraphs 438–63 (see 451), Essential Peirce v. 2, pp. 346–59 (see 353), and elsewhere.
  135. Peirce (1868), “Some Consequences of Four Incapacities”, Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2, n. 3, pp. 140–57, see p. 141Archived April 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Reprinted in Collected Papers, v. 5, paragraphs 264–317, Writings v. 2, pp. 211–42, Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 28–55, and elsewhere.
  136. Ziman, J.M.(1980). “The proliferation of scientific literature: a natural process”. Science. 208 (4442): 369–71. Bibcode:..208..369Z. doi:10.1126/science.7367863. PMID 7367863.
  137. Subramanyam, Krishna; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju (1981). Scientific and Technical Information Resources. CRC Press. ISBN978-0-8247-8297-9. OCLC 232950234.
  138. “MEDLINE Fact Sheet”. Washington DC: United States National Library of Medicine. Archivedfrom the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  139. Petrucci, Mario. “Creative Writing – Science”. Archived from the originalon January 6, 2009. Retrieved April 27,2008.
  140. Schooler, J. W. (2014). “Metascience could rescue the ‘replication crisis'”. Nature. 515(7525): 9. Bibcode:515….9S. doi:10.1038/515009a. PMID 25373639.
  141. Smith, Noah. “Why ‘Statistical Significance’ Is Often Insignificant”. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  142. Pashler, Harold; Wagenmakers, Eric Jan (2012). “Editors’ Introduction to the Special Section on Replicability in Psychological Science: A Crisis of Confidence?”. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 7(6): 528–530. doi:1177/1745691612465253. PMID 26168108.
  143. Ioannidis, John P. A.; Fanelli, Daniele; Dunne, Debbie Drake; Goodman, Steven N. (October 2, 2015). “Meta-research: Evaluation and Improvement of Research Methods and Practices”. PLOS Biology. 13(10): –1002264. doi:1371/journal.pbio.1002264. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 4592065. PMID 26431313.
  144. Feynman, Richard (1974). “Cargo Cult Science”. Center for Theoretical Neuroscience. Columbia University. Archived from the originalon March 4, 2005. Retrieved November 4,2016.
  145. Novella, Steven, et al. The Skeptics’ Guide to the Universe: How to Know What’s Really Real in a World Increasingly Full of Fake. Grand Central Publishing, 2018. pp. 162.
  146. “Coping with fraud”(PDF). The COPE Report 1999: 11–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2007. Retrieved July 21, 2011. It is 10 years, to the month, since Stephen Lock … Reproduced with kind permission of the Editor, The Lancet.
  147. “Eusocial climbers”(PDF). E.O. Wilson Foundation. Retrieved September 3, 2018. But he’s not a scientist, he’s never done scientific research. My definition of a scientist is that you can complete the following sentence: ‘he or she has shown that…’,” Wilson says.
  148. “Our definition of a scientist”. Science Council. Retrieved September 7, 2018. A scientist is someone who systematically gathers and uses research and evidence, making a hypothesis and testing it, to gain and share understanding and knowledge.
  149. Cyranoski, David; Gilbert, Natasha; Ledford, Heidi; Nayar, Anjali; Yahia, Mohammed (2011). “Education: The PhD factory”. Nature. 472(7343): 276–79. Bibcode:472..276C. doi:10.1038/472276a. PMID 21512548.
  150. Kwok, Roberta (2017). “Flexible working: Science in the gig economy”. Nature. 550: 419–21. doi:1038/nj7677-549a.
  151. Woolston, Chris (2007). Editorial (ed.). “Many junior scientists need to take a hard look at their job prospects”. Nature. 550: 549–552. doi:1038/nj7677-549a.
  152. Lee, Adrian; Dennis, Carina; Campbell, Phillip (2007). “Graduate survey: A love–hurt relationship”. Nature. 550(7677): 549–52. doi:1038/nj7677-549a.
  153. Stockton, Nick (October 7, 2014), “How did the Nobel Prize become the biggest award on Earth?”, Wired, retrieved September 3, 2018
  154. “Nobel Prize Facts”. Nobel Foundation. Archivedfrom the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  155. Spanier, Bonnie (1995). “From Molecules to Brains, Normal Science Supports Sexist Beliefs about Difference”. Im/partial Science: Gender Identity in Molecular Biology. Indiana University Press. ISBN9780253209689.
  156. Rosser, Sue V. (March 12, 2012). Breaking into the Lab: Engineering Progress for Women in Science. New York: New York University Press. p. 7. ISBN978-0-8147-7645-2.
  157. Goulden, Mark; Frasch, Karie; Mason, Mary Ann (2009). Staying Competitive: Patching America’s Leaky Pipeline in the Sciences. University of Berkeley Law.
  158. Change of Heart: Career intentions and the chemistry PhD. Royal Society of Chemistry. 2008.
  159. Parrott, Jim (August 9, 2007). “Chronicle for Societies Founded from 1323 to 1599”. Scholarly Societies Project. Archivedfrom the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  160. “The Environmental Studies Association of Canada – What is a Learned Society?”. Archived from the originalon May 29, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  161. “Learned societies & academies”. Archived from the originalon June 3, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  162. “Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei”(in Italian). 2006. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  163. Meynell, G.G. “The French Academy of Sciences, 1666–91: A reassessment of the French Académie royale des sciences under Colbert (1666–83) and Louvois (1683–91)”. Archived from the originalon January 18, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  164. Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). “Science the Endless Frontier”. National Science Foundation. Archivedfrom the original on November 7, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  165. “Main Science and Technology Indicators – 2008-1”(PDF). OECD. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 15, 2010.
  166. Ladwig, Peter (2012). “Perceived familiarity or factual knowledge? Comparing operationalizations of scientific understanding”. Science and Public Policy. 39(6): 761–74. doi:1093/scipol/scs048.
  167. Eveland, William (2004). “How Web Site Organization Influences Free Recall, Factual Knowledge, and Knowledge Structure Density”. Human Communication Research. 30(2): 208–33. doi:1111/j.1468-2958.2004.tb00731.x.
  168. Dickson, David (October 11, 2004). “Science journalism must keep a critical edge”. Science and Development Network. Archived from the originalon June 21, 2010.
  169. Mooney, Chris (November–December 2004). “Blinded By Science, How ‘Balanced’ Coverage Lets the Scientific Fringe Hijack Reality”. Columbia Journalism Review. Vol. 43 no. 4. Archivedfrom the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  170. McIlwaine, S.; Nguyen, D.A. (2005). “Are Journalism Students Equipped to Write About Science?”. Australian Studies in Journalism. 14: 41–60. Archivedfrom the original on August 1, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  171. Goldberg, Jeanne (2017). “The Politicization of Scientific Issues: Looking through Galileo’s Lens or through the Imaginary Looking Glass”. Skeptical Inquirer. 41(5): 34–39. Archived from the original on August 16, 2018. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  172. Bolsen, Toby; Druckman, James N. (2015). “Counteracting the Politicization of Science”. Journal of Communication (65): 746.
  173. Freudenberg, William F. “Scientific Certainty Argumentation Methods (SCAMs): Science and the Politics of Doubt”. Sociological Inquiry. 78: 2–38. doi:1111/j.1475-682X.2008.00219(inactive December 4, 2019).
  174. van der Linden, Sander; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Rosenthal, Seth; Maibach, Edward (2017). “Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change”(PDF). Global Challenges. 1 (2): 1. doi:1002/gch2.201600008. PMC 6607159. PMID 31565263.

18 thoughts on “Nature and scope of science

  1. bedava says:

    Hi colleagues, its impressive piece of writing about educationand entirely defined, keep it up all the time. Marlena Merle Fabiolas

  2. turkce says:

    Fantastic website. Plenty of useful information here. I am sending it to some pals ans also sharing in delicious. And certainly, thanks on your effort! Eydie Mayer Dobson

  3. Roderick Callagy says:

    That is really interesting, You’re an excessively professional blogger. I have joined your rss feed and look ahead to in the hunt for extra of your excellent post. Additionally, I have shared your website in my social networks!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *