Vanguard party (20TH CENTURY)

Originally a theory justifying Communist Party leadership in tsarist Russia.

Because the working class (allegedly) suffer from false consciousness, it was argued by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924) that the Communist Party should take the lead in mobilizing industrial workers and organizing them into a revolutionary body, rather than waiting for workers to arrive themselves at revolutionary opinions.

Source:
L Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism, 3 vols (Oxford, 1978)

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