An artistic movement formed out of the Danish Spiralen group (Copenhagen), the Belgian Bureau Internationale de Surrealisme Révolutionnaire (Brussels), and the Dutch Experimental Group (Amsterdam).

Its adherents had affinities with American action painting in their emphasis of the unconscious and spontaneous. Their works are distinctive for their abstracted compositions, violent brushwork and saturated color.


All of the known cobras are venomous and many are capable of rearing upwards and producing a hood when threatened.[2]

Other snakes known as “cobras”

Other “cobra” genera and species are as follows:

  • The rinkhals, ringhals or ring-necked spitting cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus) so-called for its neck band as well as its habit of rearing upwards and producing a hood when threatened[3]
  • The king cobra or hamadryad (Ophiophagus hannah)[4]
  • The two species of tree cobras, Goldie’s tree cobra (Pseudohaje goldii) and the black tree cobra (Pseudohaje nigra)[5]
  • The two species of shield-nosed cobras, the Cape coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus) and the shield-nosed cobra (Aspidelaps scutatus)[5]: p.76 
  • The two species of black desert cobras or desert black snakes, Walterinnesia aegyptia and Walterinnesia morgani, neither of which rears upwards and produces a hood when threatened[5]: p.65 
  • The eastern coral snake or American cobra (Micrurus fulvius), which also does not rear upwards and produce a hood when threatened[5]: p.30 

The false water cobra (Hydrodynastes gigas) is the only “cobra” species that is not a member of the Elapidae. It does not rear upwards, produces only a slight flattening of the neck when threatened, and is only mildly venomous.[5]: p.53 

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