Identified by English economist John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), and named by Irish political economist JOHN CAIRNES (1823-1875), non-competing groups describes groups of individuals who are excluded from entering certain professions.
Originally viewed as the result of disproportionate education opportunities, the analysis of non-competing groups has been extended to exclusion on the grounds of discrimination and trade union/craft barriers to entry to an industry.
Also see: dual labor market theory, crowding hypothesis, segmented labor market theory, labor market discrimination, search theory, insider-outsider wage determination
J E Cairns, Some Leading Principles of Political Economy (London, 1874)
Values reporting themselves as relative prices, costs, to bear on values, must be relative costs, and must be reduced to money terms, 52. — Efforts and waitings, therefore, articulate with prices only when translated into money costs, 54. — The employer vs. employee point of view, 55. — The assumption that, in general, wages and interest are proportional with effort and waiting sacrifices, 55. — Cairnes’s interpretation, with wages and interest conceived as derivative from product prices, and with labor as the antithesis of the remuneration of it, 55. — Employer vs. employee cost, 56. — Relation of effort and waitings costs to employer money costs, 56. — Mill, 56. — Taussig and Marshall, 57. — Ricardo, 59. — Ricardo and Cairnes, 59. — The constitution of the groups — by definition, 63. — The groupings not by vocations but by remunerations, 65. — In what sense can the intra-group relationships be competitive? 66. — Cairnes’s and Taussig’s reports of the groupings, 67. — Dates of group fixation vs. dates of group competition, 70. — The groupings further examined, 71. — Social stratification the point of emphasis, not competition or the lack of it, 73. — Inherited opportunity never more than part explanation of income groupings, or of ratios of income to sacrifice, 74. — Complete fluidity of labor also would leave the groupings no less inadequate, 76. — The three requisites for a tenable labor theory of values still unmet, 80