Named after Italian Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini (1883-1945).
Advocacy of deferential national unity under a leader, without the liberal or democratic forms of politics and government which are regarded as an obstacle to the implementation of the national will. Ordinary people, rather than being democratic citizens, are to be organized in corporations according to the contribution they make to national well-being.
The Latin ‘fasces’, a bound bundle of rods, symbolized strength through unity.
Walter Laqueur, ed., Fascism: A Reader’s Guide; Analysis, Interpretations, Bibliography (Har-mondsworth, 1979)
Fascism (/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, democracy, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far right within the traditional left–right spectrum.
Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. A “military citizenship” arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens.
Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. A fascist state is led by a strong leader such as a dictator and a martial law government composed of the members of the governing fascist party to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature and views imperialism, political violence and war as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky (national economic self-sufficiency) through protectionist and economic interventionist policies. The extreme authoritarianism of fascism usually manifests itself in the belief in a “pure race” or “master race”, usually synthesized with some variant of racism or bigotry; the idea of “purity” has motivated fascist regimes to commit massacres, forced sterilization, genocides, or forced deportations against a perceived other.
Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe contemporary parties of the far-right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th-century fascist movements.
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